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The colossal measure of electrical energy of numerous nations is devoured in lighting the streets. In any case, vehicles go with low rate in particular timeframes and parts of the streets are not possessed by vehicles after some time. In this paper, we propose a framework that consequently turns off the light for the parts of the roads having no vehicles and turns on the light for these parts once there are a few vehicles that will come. It represents the road light shining framework on vehicle recognizing development. Controlling of road light is of most extreme significance in creating nation like India to decrease the power utilization. Coherently, this framework may spare a lot of the electrical power. Furthermore, it might expand the lifetime of the lights and decrease the contamination level. This framework consequently controls and screens the light of the boulevards. It utilizes sun based vitality put away amid the day to control the LEDs amid the night. Ultrasonic Sensors utilized on either sides  of the street send rationale summons to the microcontroller for exchanging on the LEDs.


   1.0                                       INTRODUCTION

A standout amongst the most critical human progress files is the development of a decent transportation arrange. This incorporates streets, streets and parkways that must be satisfactorily enlightened so that an adequate perceivability is ensured with a specific end goal to diminish the mishap rate and increment the stream of the vehicles and security. In any case, these boulevards and streets are lit up continually for over 13 hours every day. This thus requires a tremendous measure of electrical energy to light every one of the boulevards and streets. Around 30% of the aggregate electrical energy of any nation is expended in lighting the streets and the lanes[1]. The spending cost for the
energy is high.

We additionally realize that for a few streets, vehicles go with little rate in particular timeframes. As such, on the off chance that we separate the streets into little parts, with each part has a length of 500 meters (the base perceivability go),
we can find that in numerous streets just few these parts have vehicles that go through them and whatever is left of the parts have no vehicles, yet at the same time expending electrical power. This is a dynamic issue that implies that any piece of the street can be free and afterward in no time be involved then free once more, and so on.
That brings up a characteristic issue which is: is it conceivable to consequently cut the power for the parts of the streets that don't have vehicles and resume the current for these parts once there are a few vehicles that will come? In the event that this framework could be actualized, it can spare extensive measure of the electrical power that can be utilized to create different territories in the nation. It can likewise expand the lifetime of the Lamps and subsequently diminish the primary tenance cost. Another advantage is to decrease the environment contamination.
The proposed system uses Embedded System which is a mix of PC equipment and programming, and maybe extra mechanical or different parts, intended to play out a particular capacity. An inserted framework is a microcontroller based, programming driven, solid, continuous control framework, independent, or human or system intuitive, working on differing physical factors and in different situations and sold into a  focused and cost cognizant market[2]. An installed framework is not a PC framework that is utilized principally to process, not a product framework on PC or UNIX, not a customary business or logical application. High-end embedded & lower end  embedded systems. High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose`[3].
For planning a legitimate road light different variables are to be considered which incorporates its proficiency to give appropriate lighting in the city, its hurtful natural impact, establishment and running expense and so forth. So before planning a road light every one of these components ought to be considered legitimately and endeavors ought to be made to fuse advances which are more powerful like the one we have talked about here “SOLAR LED STREET LIGHT USING    ULTRASONIC    SENSOR”.[4]    There   are various types of street lights according to the lamp used such as incandescent light, mercury vapor light, metal halide light, high pressure sodium light, low pressure sodium light, fluorescent light, compact fluorescent light, induction light and LED light..For the past several years high and low pressure sodium lamps have been used for street and security lighting but improved LED technology and their lower prices have the potential to replace them in future. LED can undoubtedly supplant conventional road light lights since they have higher adequacy and longer life separated from this they are reduced, strong and requires relatively less power. Road light is consequently exchanged ON when the daylight goes down and is naturally turned OFF when there is adequate daylight. This capacity is finished by a sensor called Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) which detects the light really like our eyes.
A comparative study between traditional HPS street light and LED street (for 1km) was done at three different locations in Greater Noida. Table below shows wattage of HPS bulb and LED array for same lux[5]. Table 1 gives wattage comparison of HPS and Led array for the same lux and pole length.





















1.1                                    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The purpose of the work is to design and construct Solar street light is raised light sources which are powered by photovoltaic panels generally mounted on the lighting structure. The photovoltaic panels charge a rechargeable battery, which powers a LED lamp during the night.

1.2                                         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This system turns on and turns off automatically by sensing outdoor light using a light source. Solar streetlights are designed to work throughout the night. Many can stay lit for more than one night if the sun is not available for a couple of days. Older models included lamps that were not fluorescent or LED. Solar lights installed in windy regions are generally equipped with flat panels to better cope with the winds.

1.3                    PURPOSE OF STREET LIGHT

There are three distinct main uses of street lights, each requiring different types of lights and placement. Misuse of the different types of lights can make the situation worse by compromising visibility or safety.

Beacon lights

A modest steady light at the intersection of two roads is an aid to navigation because it helps a driver see the location of a side road as they come closer to it and they can adjust their braking and know exactly where to turn if they intend to leave the main road or see vehicles or pedestrians. A beacon light's function is to say "here I am" and even a dim light provides enough contrast against the dark night to serve the purpose. To prevent the dangers caused by a car driving through a pool of light, a beacon light must never shine onto the main road, and not brightly onto the side road. In residential areas, this is usually the only appropriate lighting, and it has the bonus side effect of providing spill lighting onto any sidewalk there for the benefit of pedestrians. On Interstate highways this purpose is commonly served by placing reflectors at the sides of the road.
Street lights are not normally intended to illuminate the driving route, but to reveal signs and hazards outside of the headlights' beam. Because of the dangers discussed above, roadway lights are properly used sparingly and only when a particular situation justifies increasing the risk. This usually involves an intersection with several turning movements and much signage, situations where drivers must take in much information quickly that is not in the headlights' beam. In these situations (A freeway junction or exit ramp) the intersection may be lit so that drivers can quickly see all hazards, and a well designed plan will have gradually increasing lighting for approximately a quarter of a minute before the intersection and gradually decreasing lighting after it. The main stretches of highways remain unlighted to preserve the driver's night vision and increase the visibility of oncoming headlights. If there is a sharp curve where headlights will not illuminate the road, a light on the outside of the curve is often justified.
If it is desired to light a roadway (perhaps due to heavy and fast multi-lane traffic), to avoid the dangers of casual placement of street lights it should not be lit intermittently, as this requires repeated eye readjustment which implies eyestrain and temporary blindness when entering and leaving light pools. In this case the system is designed to eliminate the need for headlights. This is usually achieved with bright lights placed on high poles at close regular intervals so that there is consistent light along the route. The lighting goes from curb to curb.

Design and style

An LED street light is an integrated light that uses light emitting diodes (LED) as its light source. These are considered integrated lights because, in most cases, the luminaire and the fixture are not separate parts (except LEDGine-based luminaires). New in manufacturing, the LED light cluster is sealed on a panel and then assembled to the LED panel with a heat sink to become an integrated lighting fixture.
Different designs have been created that incorporate various types of LEDs into a light fixture. The current trend is to use high power 1 watt LEDs. However, some companies use low power LEDs in their products, including several low power LEDs packed together to perform the same purpose as a single high power LED. The shape of the LED street light depends on several factors, including LED configuration, the heat sink used with the LEDs and aesthetic design preference.
Heat sinks for LED street lights are similar in design to heat sinks used to cool other electronics such as computers. Heat sinks tend to have as many grooves as possible to facilitate the flow of hot air away from the LEDs. The area of heat exchange directly affects the lifespan of the LED street light.
The lifespan of an LED street light is determined by its light output compared to its original design specification. Once its brightness decreases by 30 percent, an LED street light is considered to be at the end of its life.
Most LED street lights have a lens on the LED panel, which is designed to cast its light in a rectangular pattern, an advantage compared to traditional street lights, which typically have a reflector on the back side of a high-pressure sodium lamp. In this case, much of the luminance of the light is lost and produces light pollution in the air and surrounding environment. Such street lights can also cause glare for drivers and pedestrians.
A drawback of LED focus panels is that most light is directed to the road, and less light to the footpaths and other areas.

1.4                        ADVANTAGES OF LED STREET LIGHTS

  • Low energy consumption: The much lower energy usage of LED lighting can dramatically reduce operating costs.
  • Long and predictable lifetime: The lifetime of LED street lights is usually 10 to 15 years, three times the life of current technologies adopted. The much less frequent need to service or replace LEDs means lower maintenance cost.
  • More accurate color rendering: The color rendering index is the ability of a light source to correctly reproduce the colors of the objects in comparison to an ideal light source. Improved color rendering makes it easier for drivers to recognize potential road hazards.
  • Quick turn on and off: Unlike fluorescent lamps, which take time to heat up once switched on, LEDs come on with full brightness instantly. Unlike mercury vapor, metal halide and sodium vapor lamps (commonly used in street lighting), LEDs do not have a problem restarting immediately (hot ignition) following a brief power failure or inadvertent turn off.
  • RoHS compliance: LEDs don't contain mercury or lead, and don't release poisonous gases if damaged.
  • Less attractive to nocturnal insects: Nocturnal insects are attracted to ultraviolet, blue and green light emitted by conventional light sources.
  • Fewer electrical losses: All other types of lighting (except incandescent) require ballasts, additional electronic and/or electromagnetic components, in which some power is consumed.
  • Optically efficient lighting equipment: Other types of street lights use a reflector to capture the light emitted upwards from the lamp. Even under the best of conditions, the reflector absorbs some of the light. Also for fluorescent lamps and other lamps with phosphor coated bulbs, the bulb itself absorbs some of the light directed back down by the reflector. The glass cover, called a refractor, helps project the light down on the street in a desired pattern but some light is wasted by being directed up to the sky (light pollution). LED lamp assemblies (panels) do not require reflectors and can be designed to provide the desired coverage without a refractor.
  • Reduced glare: Directing the light downward onto the roadway reduces the amount of light that is directed into driver's eyes.
  • Higher light output even at low temperatures: While fluorescent lights are comparably energy efficient, on average they tend to have lesser light output at winter temperatures.

   1.5                       DISADVANTAGES OF LED STREET LIGHTS

  • There is a main risk from glare. A French Government report published in 2013 agreed that a luminance level higher than 10,000 cd/m2 causes visual discomfort whatever the position of the lighting unit in the field of vision.[10]
  • The initial cost of LED street lighting is high and as a consequence it takes several years for the savings on energy to pay for that. The high cost derives in part from the material used since LEDs are often made on sapphire or other expensive substrates.
  • LED street lights may make light pollution significantly worse in some areas as they are brighter than the lights that are being replaced and thus are increasing light pollution. According to one America study they may well exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health
  • The replacement of HPS street lighting with LED street lighting is leading to a major change in the colour of the urban sky glow. The higher blue content in LED lighting is likely to increase sky glow considerably affecting bird migration and disrupting diurnal animals.

There is progressive wear of layers of phosphor in white LEDs, that with time lead to devices being moved from one photobiological risk group to a higher one.

CHAPTER TWO: The complete chapter two of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor"is available. Order full work to download. Chapter two of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor"consists of the literature review. In this chapter all the related work on "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" was reviewed.

CHAPTER THREE: The complete chapter three of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter three of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" consists of the methodology. In this chapter all the method used in carrying out this work was discussed.

CHAPTER FOUR: The complete chapter four of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter four of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" consists of all the test conducted during the work and the result gotten after the whole work

CHAPTER FIVE: The complete chapter five of design and construction of a "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter five of "design and construction of a solar led street lights using ultrasonic sensor" consist of conclusion, recommendation and references.

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