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PROJECT


BY
 
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EE/2017/167
 
SUBMITTED TO


DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI-NIKE, ENUGU.

 
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.ENG)

 



APPROVAL PAGE

This project has been read and approved by the undersigned as with the requirement at the department of Electrical Electronic Engineering of Caritas University Amorji Nike Enugu for the award of  Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.) in Electrical Electronic Engineering.

----------------------------                                             --------------------------
    Engr. Ejimorfor                                                                   Date
(Project supervisor)                                            
 
---------------------------                                               --------------------------
      
    Engr. Ejimofor                                                                      Date
(Head of Department)
 
 
------------------------------                                            ------------------------
      
External Supervisor                                                             Date                                                                    

 


 

DECLARATION

I declare that this project material is an original work done by me under the supervision of Engr. Ejimorfor, department of electrical electronic engineering faculty of engineering caritas university, amorji-nike, enugu

 


DEDICATION


This project is dedicated to Almighty God and to my parents Engr. & Mrs. Chukwu A. Orioha and to my beloved brothers and sisters whose ever loving kindness and support has seen me through my years of studies.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


I wish to express my immense gratitude to God Almighty for his mercy, guidance and protection towards me for seeing me through the rigors of this work. I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Engr. Ejimofor for his kind gesture and whose critics lead to the achievement of this work. I also will remain grateful to the tremendous contribution of my lecturers Engr. Ojobor (the Dean of Engineering Faculty), Engr. Ejimofor (Head of Electrical Electronic Engineering Department), Engr. Mbah, Engr. Ochi, and all the staff of Electrical Electronic Engineering both academic and non academic staff for their intellectual upbringing. My special appreciation goes to my loving parents Engr. & Mrs. Chukwu A. Orioha, my grandparent, my uncles and aunties, my brothers and sisters whose moral and financial support cannot be over emphasized. Also my sincere gratitude and special regards to my friends too many to mention whose encouragement also lead to the success of this work.


 

ABSTRACT

An Automatic Changeover Switch switches off the generator and automatically changes over to NEPA. An Automatic Changeover Switch will automatically switch off your generator and change over to MAIN ( Public power supply/NEPA) on resumption.
You will save fuel and no risk of electrocution. It also serves as power surge protector for appliances.
The main aim of any electric power supply in the world is to provide uninterrupted power supply at all times to all its consumers. Although, in developing countries, the electric power generated to meet the demands of the growing consumers of electricity is insufficient, hence power instability and outage.
Power instability or outage in general does not promote development in the public and private sector. The investors do not feel secure to come into a country with constant or frequent power failure. These limit the development of industries. In addition, there are processes that cannot be interrupted because of their importance for instance, surgery operation in hospitals, transfer of money between banks and lots more. Power instability and outage in developing countries (Nigeria) creates a need for alternative sources of power to backup the mains supply.
Automatic changeover switches find a wide application scope wherever the reliability of electrical supply from the utilities is low and it is used in lighting/motor circuits wherever continuity of supply is necessary, for switching to an alternative source from main supply and vice versa.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWELDGEMENT
ABSTRCT
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

    • INTRODUCTION
    • BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
    • AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    • PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
    • STATEMENT OF PPROBLEM
    • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
    • APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
    • DEFINITION OF TERMS
    • PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1      REVIEW OF ELECTRICAL PHASES
2.2      REVIEW OF THREE-PHASE ELECTRIC POWER
2.3      REVIEW OF CAUSES OF POWER FAILURES
2.4       POWER SUPPLY RELIABILITY
2.5      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ARDUINO
2.6      DEVELOPMENT OF ARDUINO

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY
3.1      BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM

3.2      DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
3.3      CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.3      CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4      SYSTEM OPERATION
3.5      COMPONENTS LIST
3.6      POWER SUPPLY UNIT
3.7      POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT DSECRIPTION
3.7     DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1      CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING
4.2      ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.3      CONSRUCTION OF THE CASING
4.4      ECONOMIC OF THE PROJECT
4.5     PROJECT VIABILITY
4.6      PROJECT RELIABILITY
4.7      PROJECT MAINTAINABILITY
4.8      PROJECT EVALUATION
4.9     TESTING, TROUBLESHOOTING AND REMEDY

CHAPTER FIVE

    • CONCLUSIONS
    • RECOMMENDATION

5.3     REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE
1.1                                                        INTRODUCTION
The Changeover Switch is a device used to switch off a power supply and subsequently switch on another power supply. Basically it is aimed at switching on a more convenient power supply to the load.
Since it switches on power to the load, precautions has to be taken while choosing the type of Changeover Switch, while selecting the appropriate size, the control of arcing has to be put into consideration.
A good switch should be the one whose contact is made in such a way as to limit the arc formation by having no contact-bounce and by having contacts made of good conductive, corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials.
A good change over switch must have adequate insulation and must be so constructed and located as not to constitute a potential hazard.
A good change over switch should also have tight contact points so as to limit or eliminate the possibility of partial contact at the contact point. The partial contact leads to overheating of the components and may lead to fire outbreak in the entire room.
This work is built around an ardiuno Microcontrollers which the heart of embedded systems. There are various types of embedded systems for different applications. The applications of embedded systems range from changing ac electrical appliances from generator to mains supply and vice-versa. When it comes to controlling high voltage appliances, microcontrollers often depend on Relays to drive them. Relays act as a bridge between the low power microcontrollers and high voltage devices.
In this project, we are going to control a Relay using Arduino UNO to drive a high current appliances.

    • BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

If some of these big firm do not make provisions for stand-by power source, frustration could set in which may lead to the closure of business and thus throwing workers into unemployment. Also in the case of hospital, undergoing a surgical operation and power supply suddenly go off, the patient might loose his or her life due to the power outage.
An Engineering Author, “Tony Rudkin”  said in his book titled “Upgraded Signal Source with Improved Performance and Reliability” that the cost and depredation associated with breakdown vary from one application to the other, and in some cases, the user has little choice but to ensure that a stand-by unit is available to take over on event of failure of primary system.
Furthermore, if the president of the country is making nationwide broadcast and all of a sudden power went off in the transmitting station, it would be viewed as an attempt to sabotage the government ruling and some people must pay for it.
Sequel to the rate at which more sophisticated electrical/electronics gadgets are being procured and installed in our homes, hospitals and business premises, there is a justifiable need for a faster and more reliable change over system in an event of power outage.
In view of these considerations, this project is aimed at designing and constructing a workable automatic change over switch with a phase failure detecting circuit also known as “Automatic Mains Failure” which switches on the head from power Holding Company (PHC) to a generator when power fails and from generator to PHC when power comes back.


1.2                                 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
Due to inconsistent supply of power, there is a growing need for an alternative source of power supply. This has lead to heavy capital investment in a bid to suppress power failure and ensure regular power supply for the industry, hospitals, schools and homes. The problem of power failure can be checkmated with the use of stand-by generating set. However, the objective of this work is to design an automatic  switching device that will change to an alternative power supply (Generator), and back to the main supply when it is restored. In this work a Relay was drive using Arduino UNO to drive a high current appliances from mains to generator set whenever there is power failure

1.3                                         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The automatic change over switch, the switch aimed at achieving the following automatic actions;

  • To change power over to generator
  • To change back to PHC
  • To change the generator.

The automatic change over unit can be operated in single or three phase system. The automatic change over switch has the following advantages;

  • It minimizes damages to lives/equipment since it has its own monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with the switch, thus eliminating human error.       
  • It reduces its change over timing to the minimum due to its fast response to power outage.
  • It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt response.

Moreover, the size and captivity of the unit will depend upon the load for which it will be used. The unit is also portable, easy, convenient and safe to install.


1.4                                              PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of this project is to maintain constant supply to the main circuit that is being supplied by making-up for the time lapse or delay that usually accompanies the manual switching from one source to another. The design comprises of the power connection circuit and control connection circuit. The main components to be used include; relays, arduino, and transistor


1.5                                     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In every home, office or industries, automatic power changeover  plays a vital role, that is, It provides a means of switching from utility AC mains to generator in the case of power failure; This project has been improved on the existing types of electromechanical device that has being in use over the years.       
In the course of designing this project, different kinds of problem was notice such as:

  • Difficulty in troubleshooting with circuit without the circuit diagram
  • Difficulty in connecting the output without short-circuiting, until a multiplexing circuit was gotten.
  • Difficult in wiring because of the strong wiring the project required..

1.6                              SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This work covers only a one phase automatic changeover which can only be used for providing a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to generator in the case of failure in public utility.
Microcontrollers are the heart of embedded systems. There are various types of embedded systems for different applications. The applications of embedded systems range from controlling appliances. When it comes to controlling high voltage devices, microcontrollers often depend on Relays to drive them. Relays act as a bridge between the low power microcontrollers and high voltage devices.
In this project, we are going to control a Relay using Arduino UNO to drive a high current appliances from mains to generator set whenever there is power failure. Although the project is explained to change our appliances from mains supply to generator set and vice-versa.

1.7                                          APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
Some common examples of entities that implement automatic switches out of necessity are: hospitals, data centers, jails and prisons, fire departments, defense organizations, and police departments.


1.8                                                  DEFINITION OF TERMS
CHANGEOVER: Generally, a changeover switch is a system which could be operated manually or automatically , that changes one source of power supply to another source in case of power failure from either of the two sources.
RELAY: relay is one of the major components used in this work which is an electrical device, typically incorporating an electromagnet, which is activated by a current or signal in one circuit to open or close another circuit.
POWER FLUCTUATIONS: is a periodic dip or spikes in the electrical current of any given circuit.
POWER FAILURE: is a short- or long-term loss of the electric power to an area.  

     
1.9                                        PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this works is on the introduction to changeover switch. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of changeover switch were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of changeover switch. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

 

 

 

 

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