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 Tricycles are becoming more popular commercial means of transport across all Nigerian cities. This project goes into detailed evaluation of tricycle as public means of transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encounter in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are some few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system. With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspect of Safety. If it is done continuosly, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.

Title page                                                                                                                     i
Certification                                                                                                                 ii
Dedication                                                                                                                  iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv
Table of contents                                                                                                        v-vii
List of tables                                                                                                               viii-ix
Abstract                                                                                                                       x

1.0 Introduction                                                                                                          1
1.1 Statement of the problem                                                                                     1
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the study                                                                          2
1.3 Justification of the theory                                                                                     2-3
1.4 Scope of the study                                                                                                3-4
1.5 Description of the study area                                                                                4-5
1.6 Proposed Methodology                                                                                        5-6

2.0 Literature Review                                                                                                 7
2.1 Tricycle as a mode of transportation                                                                     7
2.2 Importance of Tricycle (Keke Napep) as a mode of public
Transport in an urban area                                                                                    8
2.3 Short coming of Tricycle                                                                                      8-9
2.4 The importance of wearing helmet while riding a Tricycle                                   9-10
2.5 Requirement to be met by helmet used by Keke Napep riders (Tricyclist)    10-11

3.0 Methodology                                                                                                        12
3.1 Oral Interview                                                                                                       12-13
3.2 Issuing of Questionnaire                                                                                       13-14
3.3 Field Work                                                                                                            14
3.4 Kwara State Tricycle operation (Control Safety E.T.C)  laws 2010                    14-15

4.0 Analysis and Discussion of result                                                                         16
4.1 Introduction                                                                                                          16
4.2 Oral Interview                                                                                                       16
4.3 Questionnaire                                                                                                        17
4.4 Field Work                                                                                                            17-18
Characteristic of operators (Tricyclist)                                                                        21-23
Challenges or factors militating against the smooth running
of the trade                                                     
5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation                                                           23
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            23
References                                                                                                                 24                

Table 4.1:  Details of the result from the Oral interview                                            16
Table 4.2:  Result from the questionnaire distributed                                                  17
Table 4.3:  Ages of respondent within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin                                        18
Table 4.4:  Reason for operating Tricycle within the various streets                          18
Table 4.5:  Educational attainment of respondents                                                    19
Table 4.6:  Monthly income of the operators within the various Street.                     20

Plate 4.1: Ipata road, Ilorin                                                                                   21                                                                                  
Plate 4.2: Amilegbe-Ipata road, Ilorin                                                                   22
Plate 4.3: Oke andi junction, Ilorin                                                                       22       

Figure 1.1      Description of Case Study                                                                 5



The work of Ngadiran et al. (2008) relating to the comfort and wellbeing of the drivers is a half of two lobes without a similar research focus on the passengers for safety of commercial road transportation. In Nigerian road transportation system, varieties of buses, taxis, omnibus, vans and motorcycles are used to move material and people from one place to the other (Onawumi & Lucas 2012). In his research on passengers’ satisfactions with transport services in Nigeria, Ali (2014) noted high level of discomforts leading to lack of satisfactions of passengers with the available public transport services. Part of the causes reported for the users’ discomforts are poor conditions of necessary facilities (Adejuyigbe & Adeyemi 2000).

The inability of the conventional modes of transport such as Trains,buses, cars, Okada and ferry services to meet transportation demand owing to fleet depletion and high operational cost caused by down turn in economy,resulting in high record of accident from Okada motor cycles has led to unplanned emergence of para transit or non conventional mode of transportation popularly known as KEKE NAPEP (tricycle).
Tricycle refers to a commercial device where tricycle riders carry passengers for hire.The name TRICYCLE is as a result of the machine being a pedal driven vehicle with two wheel at the back and a wheel at front.KEKE NAPEP is known for it comfort ability and safety compare to Okada motorcycle. Kekenapep (Tricycle) became more useful and indispensable as soon as the federal government bound Okada motorcycle across several states in the country.In an ironic metaphor,the first group of tricycle transporters was then given the name “KEKE NAPEP.”Because of the comic irony of this name being used for tricycles and popularity of the manufacture which is India, the name Keke napep for commercial tricycle was never to be for gotten and eventually become as popular as it is okay.

The primary objective of most transport system is to make profit.This is because profit yield growth, survival and continuity in business.The various transport corporations recognize this fact.Over the years and prior to this contemporary age,a lot of factors had challenged the profitability of this transport system. Travelers across the nation have found it difficult to convey considerable goods which cannot be carried by lorry as a result of it meager nature and lesser weight,on several occasion business men and travelers are usually stranded and effectually get frustrated until the invention of this so called TRICYCLE which have gone a long way to assist the travelers and transporters in conveying the goods from the manufacturers and sites to their destination comfortably and safely compare to Okada motorcycle. The study therefore examines the following problems;
1.         What are the motives for establishing Tricycle as public transport system in Nigeria and     subsequently in Kwara State?
2.         To what extent are these motives being achieved?

1.2       AIM OF THE STUDY

  1. The aim of this project is to evaluate Tricycle as public transport system in an urban area within Ipata-Sango


  1. To assist the effectiveness of tricycle compare to other means of public transport system.
  2. To determine the significance of  tricycle compare to other means of public transport


Evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transport is considered worthy of study because of the inability of travelers to convey their goods and produce from the market and farm including sites to their destination. Also a lot of Okada motorcycles multiply on the various roads without helping in conveying of goods and even safety entirely especially within Ipata-Sango Ilorin. Therefore, to assist the public especially in the aspect of safety and transportation of goods, there is a need to study in to the evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transportation in an urban area.

This study is limited to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis. The major factor considered here is

  1. Avoidance of overloading
  2. Adherence to the approved speed limit
  3. Abstains from drunkenness
  4. Avoidance of rough riding
  5. Ensuring the tricycles are protected with the mini canopy(water proof) for safety
  6. We also focus on the plate number and uniformity of the vehicles colour
  7. The total number of passengers patronizing tricycle.

All passengers are likely to encounter one form of challenges or the other. In the course of my research, I observed that the passengers usually encounter diverse forms of challenges such as;
i.          Exposure to rainfall: In most cases, the build up of the TRICYCLE                                                                       (Keke  Napep) makes the passengers vulnerable to external forces such as rainfall and for this reason most of the passenger found it uncomfortable to board because they usually            get wet when travelling.

ii.         Excessive Wind pressure: the two sides of the Tricycle is obviously opened with no        doors   unlike vehicles that are properly secured. This opening usually expose the passengers to   high wind pressure which may subsequently result to illness especially          when the vehicle         is on high speed.

iii.        Uncomfortability : on several occasions, the passengers seat at both front and back are     usually tight as a result of variation in size and shape of the passengers. The  bigger the         passengers, the more tight and uncomfortable they feel while travelling.
iv.        Accident: The kind of accident associated with this form of Transportation (KEKE           NAPEP) is usually fatal, though they seems to be very rare on local road. This factor also         discourage some passengers from travelling by Tricycles.

1.5       DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA (case study of Ipata-Sango) Ilorin.
From IOT, take a bike straight to Ipata. Ipata is usually a marketing area and a very busy place too. There are two lanes road at ipata with shop available along the roadside. Tricycles are also common in that area.
Text Box: Challenge RoadText Box: Sabo Line RoadText Box: Sango Road

CBN Road

Oja Oba Road

From Ipata, there is a straight road that links to MurtalaRoad and by the left is round about, immediately after the roundabout is straight route to Sango. Sango is also a commercial centre (marketing place) with more lively feature than Ipata. There is a ministry of Agriculture at Sango, a mobile police station and Tricycles are very common there. From Sango, there is straight route to kwara State Polytechnic permanentsite(ps)      


CBN Road

Oja Oba Road

Sabo Oke Road

Amilege Roaad

Ipata Road


Figure 1.1: Description of Case Study


In collecting data for this project work, various methods were employed. Data used was collected by using both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary collection method includes.

  1. The administration of structured questionnaires
  2. Personal interviews (with selected of staff and passengers) observations.
The secondary method includes the use of related texts
  1. Related texts
  2. Journals
  3. Magazines and write up on the use of Tricycle as a public transport system
  4. Annual report and account of profit maximization. This help to give a clear exploration of the study.


1.7                                                         PROJECT ORGANISATION
The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work,   chapter two presents the literature review of the study,  chapter three describes the methods applied,  chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO: The chapter one of this work has been displayed above. The complete chapter two of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" is also available. Order full work to download. Chapter two of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" consists of the literature review. In this chapter all the related work on "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" was reviewed.

CHAPTER THREE: The complete chapter three of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter three of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" consists of the methodology. In this chapter all the method used in carrying out this work was discussed.

CHAPTER FOUR: The complete chapter four of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter four of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" consists of all the test conducted during the work and the result gotten after the whole work

CHAPTER FIVE: The complete chapter five of design and construction of a "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter five of "evaluation of tricycle as public transport system in an urban area" consist of conclusion, recommendation and references.



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