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This project has been read and approved by the undersigned as with the requirement at the department of Electrical Electronic Engineering of Caritas University Amorji Nike Enugu for the award of  Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.) in Electrical Electronic Engineering.

----------------------------                                             --------------------------
    Engr. Ejimorfor                                                                   Date
(Project supervisor)                                            
---------------------------                                               --------------------------
    Engr. Ejimofor                                                                      Date
(Head of Department)
------------------------------                                            ------------------------
External Supervisor                                                             Date                                                                    




I declare that this project material is an original work done by me under the supervision of Engr. Ejimorfor, department of electrical electronic engineering faculty of engineering caritas university, amorji-nike, enugu



This project is dedicated to Almighty God and to my parents Engr. & Mrs. Chukwu A. Orioha and to my beloved brothers and sisters whose ever loving kindness and support has seen me through my years of studies.


I wish to express my immense gratitude to God Almighty for his mercy, guidance and protection towards me for seeing me through the rigors of this work. I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Engr. Ejimofor for his kind gesture and whose critics lead to the achievement of this work. I also will remain grateful to the tremendous contribution of my lecturers Engr. Ojobor (the Dean of Engineering Faculty), Engr. Ejimofor (Head of Electrical Electronic Engineering Department), Engr. Mbah, Engr. Ochi, and all the staff of Electrical Electronic Engineering both academic and non academic staff for their intellectual upbringing. My special appreciation goes to my loving parents Engr. & Mrs. Chukwu A. Orioha, my grandparent, my uncles and aunties, my brothers and sisters whose moral and financial support cannot be over emphasized. Also my sincere gratitude and special regards to my friends too many to mention whose encouragement also lead to the success of this work.



Microbes and their biosynthetic capabilities have been invaluable in finding solutions for several intractable problems mankind has encountered in maintaining the quality of the environment. They have, for example, been used to positive effect and also negative effect in human and animal health, genetic engineering, environmental protection, and municipal and industrial waste treatment. Microorganisms have enabled feasible and cost-effective responses which would have been impossible via straightforward chemical or physical engineering methods. Microbial technologies have of late been applied to a range of environmental problems, with considerable success. 








1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION
1.1                                               BACKGROUND  OF STUDY
Microorganisms is a microscopic organism, which may be a single cell or multicellular organism. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design.
Microorganisms are very diverse and include all of the bacteria and archaea and almost all of the protozoa. They also include some members of the fungi, algae, and animals such as rotifers. Many macro animals and plants have juvenile stages which are also microorganisms. Some microbiologists also classify viruses as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. Most microorganisms are microscopic, but there are some bacteria such as Thiomargarita namibiensis and some protozoa such as Stentor, which are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye.
Environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. The environment in this case means the soil, water, air and sediments covering the planet and can also include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental microbiology also includes the study of microorganisms that exist in artificial environments such as bioreactors.
Molecular biology has revolutionized the study of microorganisms in the environment and improved our understanding of the composition, phylogeny, and physiology of microbial communities. The current molecular toolbox encompasses a range of DNA-based technologies and new methods for the study of RNA and proteins extracted from environmental samples. Currently there is a major emphasis on the application of "omics" approaches to determine the identities and functions of microbes inhabiting different environments.
Microbial life is amazingly diverse and microorganisms literally cover the planet. It is estimated that we know fewer than 1% of the microbial species on Earth. Microorganisms can survive in some of the most extreme environments on the planet and some can survive high temperatures, often above 100°C, as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Some are found in very cold habitats and others in highly salt|saline, acidic, or alkaline water.
An average gram of soil contains approximately one billion (1,000,000,000) microbes representing probably several thousand species. Microorganisms have special impact on the whole biosphere. They are the backbone of ecosystems of the zones where light cannot approach. In such zones, chemosynthetic bacteria are present which provide energy and carbon to the other organisms there. Some microbes are decomposers which have ability to recycle the nutrients. So, microbes have a special role in biogeochemical cycles. Microbes, especially bacteria, are of great importance in the sense that their symbiotic relationship (either positive or negative) have special effects on the ecosystem.
Microorganisms are cost effective agents for in-situ remediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. The ability of each microorganism to degrade toxic waste depends on the nature of each contaminant. Since most sites are typically comprised of multiple pollutant types, the most effective approach to microbial biodegradation is to use a mixture of bacterial species/strains, each specific to the degradation of one or more types of contaminants. It is vital to monitor the composition of the indigenous and added bacterial consortium in order to evaluate the activity level of the bacteria, and to permit modifications of the nutrients and other conditions for optimizing the bioremediation process.


1.2                          AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this work is to study the effects of microbes derive from their metabolic activities in the environment, their associations with plants and animals, and from their use in food production and biotechnological processes.
At the end of this work. The student involved will be able to:

  1. To isolate and identify how micro-organism affects our environment.
  2. To isolate and identify it those micro-organisms are responsible for the spoilage
  3. To compare the extent of spoilage in the area of colection (tree) with that of market

HO:     Microbial organisms do not cause spoilage in our environment at either in the field or during exposure for sale.
Hg       = Microorganisms (Fungi and Bacteria) are responsible for spoilage in our environment.

1.4                                  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be useful to farmers, fruit juice industries and consumers of food. T he outcome of this research will guide users environment on the best method of preserving to avoid spoilage, the research work also will add to the literature and information existing about our environment

1.5                             LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are many or different type of microorganism that causes spoilage in our environment in general, focus is made only on fungi and bacterial because they are the major organisms associated with our environment.

1.6                            SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, are all around us. This study allows students to collect samples from the world around them and grow the microorganisms so that students can visualize the microorganisms.  This teaches students how to plate and grow microorganisms.

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