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This page contains project topics/write-up for MICROBIOLOGY department. Hyclassproject's aim of providing all these research materials is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for project topics and materials. We are not encouraging any form of PLAGIARISM.This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon "All creative work builds on what came before", and according to Bishop Dr. David Oyedepo "You cannot be a Reference without having References".

Below are the list of our avaliable project topics/write-up, to view or download the complete work on each of the following works, click on the useful links menu at the right-hand or bottom part of this page:

1. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION OF NIGERIA BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL: Oil is the single and most important commodity in the entire world today and also the largest resource for man’s demand for energy. Crude oil or petroleum is the oil believed to have originated from plants and animals remains over a long period of time. The proceeds from oil production in Nigeria have no doubt contributed to the social, economic and political development at the same time causing negative impact to both the environment and those living in that environment. It has rendered the ecosystem nearly useless due to oil spillage.  It is not peculiar to Nigeria alone but the distinguishing mark is its management where there are found. Now the question is on the Future of Nigeria without crude oil.
Bitumen and heavy oil are unconventional oil resources that are characterized by high viscosities (i.e. resistance to flow) and high densities compared to conventional oil. Most Bitumen and heavy oil deposits are very shallow. They originated as conventional oil that formed in deep formations, but migrated to the surface region where they were degraded by bacteria and by weathering, and where the lightest hydrocarbons escaped. Bitumen and heavy oil are deficient in hydrogen and have high carbon, sulfur, and heavy metal content. Hence, they require additional processing (upgrading) to become a suitable feedstock for a normal refinery...{read more to download full material} 

2. THE USE OF MICROBES AS MOBILITY CONTROL AGENTS DURING MEOR: This project work is titled the use of microbes as mobility control agents during MEOR.
Oil is an energy source that drives industrialization and continued economic growth.  In many industrialized nations such as the United States, domestic oil production is in decline and the likelihood of discovering large, new oil reserves is low.  This makes it essential that the remaining resources are to be used wisely.  Microorganisms will play a pivotal role in determining the quality and effective use of petroleum resources.  The problems encountered with petroleum exploitation should be viewed with microorganisms in mind. 
Microbes BioSciences has over twenty years experience in the microbial enhanced oil recovery business.  Its technology was developed and proved in the US and projects have been successfully completed in China, Argentina, Indonesia, Ecuador, Venezuela and the former Soviet Union.  Its technology is based on isolating and culturing natural hydrocarbon reducing microorganisms and introducing these microbes into petroleum reservoirs through production and injection wells...{read more to download full material} 

3. MICROBIAL ENHANCED HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY THE AID OF INHABITANT SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA:Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s) were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.


4. MICROBIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT AVOCADO FRUIT: Microbial examination of spoilt Avocado fruits was carried out to obtained the causal organism.  A total of 60 avocado from Ogbete Main market and New market Enugu were examined by culturing on nutrient agar and sabourand dextrose agar (SM), for bacteria and fungi causing post – harvest spoilage on the fruits; six bacterial species and six fungal species were isolated. The bacteria include Erwinia SP  (66.7%), Streptococcus sp,  *25%), E. Coli (18.9%) and  staphycoccus sp (33.3%), Pseudomonas sp (20%) and Chromobacterium sp (5%) has the lowest percentage occurrence, Erwinia sp,  Pseudomonas sp and chromobacterium sp were found to be absent in the control.  The fungi species, includes Aspergillus sp  (50%), Pericillium sp  (25%), Fusarium sp  (16.6%), Rhisopus sp  (13.3%), currularia sp (8.3%) and Rhoctorula sp  (3.3%), were also kolated Avocado fruits from Ogbete main market were more contaminated than the avocado form the new market ...{read more to download full material}

5. STERILIZATION OF MICROORGANISM FOUND IN FOOD ITEM (TOMATOES) USING UV LIGHT: The source of a large outbreak of food borne disease related to Salmonella-contaminated tomatoes has been traced to Nigeria. Although the microbiological quality of tomatoes sampled was similar to that found in markets from developed countries, the presence of pathogens causes a risk of infection for consumers.
There are many ways to sterilize surfaces and materials to kill bacteria and other harmful organisms that attack tomatoes. One way is through the use of ultraviolet, or UV radiation, also called UV light. UV light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of tomatoes using UV light...{read more to download full material}

6. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION OF NIGERIA BITUMEN AND HEAVY OIL: Oil is the single and most important commodity in the entire world today and also the largest resource for man’s demand for energy. Crude oil or petroleum is the oil believed to have originated from plants and animals remains over a long period of time. The proceeds from oil production in Nigeria have no doubt contributed to the social, economic and political development at the same time causing negative impact to both the environment and those living in that environment. It has rendered the ecosystem nearly useless due to oil spillage.  It is not peculiar to Nigeria alone but the distinguishing mark is its management where there are found. Now the question is on the Future of Nigeria without crude oil.

Bitumen and heavy oil are unconventional oil resources that are characterized by high viscosities (i.e. resistance to flow) and high densities compared to conventional oil. Most Bitumen and heavy oil deposits are very shallow. They originated as conventional oil that formed in deep formations, but migrated to the surface region where they were degraded by bacteria and by weathering, and where the lightest hydrocarbons escaped. Bitumen and heavy oil are deficient in hydrogen and have high carbon, sulfur, and heavy metal content. Hence, they require additional processing (upgrading) to become a suitable feedstock for a normal refinery...{read more to download full material}

7. EFFECT OF INSECTICIDE ON MANGO AND ITS CONTROL: Mangoes are an important smallholder and commercial crop in Nigeria, and one of the most important commercial crops in Nigeria. To achieve good yields with top quality fruits, mango growers currently rely on regular insecticide applications. This leads to increased costs, the reduction of natural predators and parasitoids that help control the insect pests, increased pest resistance to insecticides residues in the fruits and environmental pollution.
Green ants are efficient predators of a wide range of insect pests in many tropical fruit crops and they are abundant and widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Previous work in Indonesia and preliminary results from cashew crops in Nigeria indicate that green ants can control some of the main pests of mangoes...{read more to download full material}

8. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENT CONTENT IN LINSEED OIL: This work is on elemental analysis of some element content in linseed oil. Linseed oil is a kind of biomass with high edible and medical value. It is rich in many kinds of nutrients and mineral elements. In order to explore the main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids in Linseed oil, the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid composition from 10 different regions was carried out. The contents of seventeen kinds of mineral elements in Linseed oil were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The contents of fatty acids of the Linseed oil obtained under the same conditions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was applied to the study of analyzing the mineral elements and fatty acid compositions in flaxseeds. The difference in mineral elements and fatty acids of Linseed from different regions were discussed. The main characteristic constituents of mineral elements and fatty acids were analyzed. The results showed that K, Sr, Mg, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Se, Zn and Cu were the main characteristic constituents of the mineral elements. At the same time, C16:0, C18:0, C18: 2, C18:3, C20:0 and C20:1 were the main characteristic constituents of the fatty acids. The combination of ICP-MS, GS-MS and PCA can reveal the characteristics and difference of mineral elements and fatty acids from different regions. The results would provide important theoretical basis for the reasonable and effective utilization of flaxseed...{read more to download full material}

9. FUNGAL MICROBIOME IN FOOD, HEALTH AND DISEASES: Fungal microbiome includes some fungi, algae, and certain animals, such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages. Some microbiologists also classify viruses as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving.

Fungal microbiome live in every part of the biosphere, including soil, hot springs, "seven miles deep" in the ocean, "40 miles high" in the atmosphere and inside rocks far down within the Earth's crust. Fungal microbiome under certain test conditions, have been observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space. The total amount of soil and subsurface bacterial carbon is estimated as 5 x 1017 g, or the "weight of the United Kingdom". The mass of prokaryote Fungal microbiome — which includes bacteria and archaea, but not the nucleated eukaryote microorganisms — may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon (of the total biosphere mass of 4 trillion tons).

10. THE EVALUTION OF THE OPERATION OF NIGERIA IMMIGRATION SERVICES IN THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF EXOTIC DISEASE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF PORTHACOURT RIVER STATE):The researcher investigated in to the operation of Nigeria Immigration service to determine its suitability in the control and prevention of exotic discussion with portharcurt Immigration Commission as a practical case study. Without hesitation the research presented the projection and focus of this research in an introduction chapter while all already existing information about the research topic was addressed under the literature review...{read more to download full material}


11]. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED PASTEURIZED DRY MIL POWER: The bacteria quality of four (4) commercially available dry sachet milk powder (peak, cowbell, Blue boat and Nunu) were analysed in this study usinf the pour plate method. The result showed that peak, cowbell and blue boat were free of all forms of bacteria which Bacillus and Lactobacillus species were isolated from the Nunu brand. Although the microbial count was low, the fact remains that their presence in the product would certainly compromise it shelf life and there by constituting an health hazard especially to children and lactase intolerance people. In view of this result , there is need for the manufacturers to tighten in –process quality control checks and for government food regulatory agencies such as National Agency for food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFSAC) to carry out routine checks from time to time on these milk producing companies to ensure consumer safety standards are not compromised...{read more to download full material}


012]. ESTIMATION OF FOOD WASTE IN A CITY, FOOD WASTE CHARACTERISTICS AND BIO ETHANOL POTENTIALS OF FOOD: Production of ethanol fuel from organic and food waste has been carried out with the singular aim of converting the waste to useful material. To achieve this, the conversion of organic waste and food waste were respectively carried out via acid and microbial hydrolysis, which yielded 42% and 63% fermentable sugar wort.  This was then converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Sacchromyces ceverisiae. 95% ethanol was obtained by fractional distillation of the fermentable wort and the total volume of ethanol produced from 2,500 grams of the organic and food wastes was 0.86 liters. Fermentation Kinetic parameters were evaluated. Considering the percentage fermentable sugar yield from the biomasses in study, it is more economical to produce ethanol from food waste (maize) than old organic waste...{read more to download full material}

013]. EXTRACTION AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PALM KERNEL OIL : The kernel of the Elaeis guinensis palm fruits were collected, analyzed and the composition and of oil extracted was investigated. The effect of time and drying temperature (in sun and in electric ovens) of palm kernel on the quality of palm kernel oil obtained were studied. The liquid content of the kernel oil was 52.76%. The major fatty acids in kernel oil were about 54.51 % lauric acid, 15.49% myristic acid and ".53% oleic acid. Palm kernel oil was about 88.58% saturated and [1.37% unsaturated. Hexane extracted oil from the collected kernels gives 9.58%as oleic acid, 3.59 as peroxide value.  for oil with acceptable qualities, kernels destined for extraction need  to have  dried in the whole state and deprived from flour smash during 6 days. the research of optimal conditions during sun drying of different kernels size at different times showed that oil extracted from flour have much in the fatty acids after 10 days drying as compared to other samples dried in  the same conditions.  In addition, the peroxide number of this oil sample from flours very high (127.45 meqkg). In electrical air dryer, the regression model have shown that  it is suitable to dry at t < 1200e for> 100min, so as to have perfect dehydration without loss of fats. Less acidic oils (percent oleic acid< 1.5) are obtained when working at temperature >60oC for>100min. high peroxide value (>30meq) are obtained from drying kernel for high temperature (> 1200C) or from drying kernel for <300min. finally. in an electrical air dryer, kernels have to be dried between 60 and during 300-400 min to limit the fat losses and to obtain oil  with poor free fatty acids and less oxidized...{read more to download full material}

014]. DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN SOME SELECTED FRUIT BY UV METHODOLOGY: A UV method for the analysis of ascorbic acid with methanol as solvent to prepare a sample has been developed and applied. The effect of copper(II) concentrations on the oxidation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution has been studied in detail, and the regularities of ascorbic acid oxidation in methanol, USP phosphate buffer (pH 2.50) and de-ionized water have been found. Upon experiments ascorbic acid has been found to dissolve in methanol, and its solubility in it has been measured to be 81.0mg/ml at room temperature (22 degrees C). The ascorbic acid bulk material from a manufacturer has been assayed to be 89.34% with this method, in good agreement with the assay value (89.58%) from the titration method. The ascorbic acid granule and tablet content uniformity also has been tested using this method. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and reliable, and can be adopted for the routine determination of ascorbic acid in its granule and tablet formulations...{read more to download full material}


015]. DETERMINATION OF SUGAR CONTENT IN PINEAPLE FRUITS: This paper deals with the study of sugar content in pineapple fruits. Sugar present in the juice of pineapple (Ananas Cosmosus) which is edible crystalline carbohydrate mainly sucrose, lactose and fructose was elucidated. Pineapple juice was extracted from the pineapple sample. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out. The qualitative analysis was carried out by using Benedict reagent, Seliwanoff’s reagent, phenylydrazine and thin layer chromatography. The quantitative evaluation was carried out by Dichromate method using glucose and fructose as standards. The results obtained for qualitative analysis showed that the juice contain glucose and fructose. The amount of glucose found was 3.9x10-2g/cm3 and 1.41x10-2g/cm3for fructose in the quantitative analysis...{read more to download full material}

016]. DETERMINATION OF SOME DISSOLVED SOME CORROSIVE METAL (CADMIUM, ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND LEAD) ION IN DRINKING WATER: Metal contamination in water is a major component in the determination of water quality. Apparently, tap water qualities in many countries are affected by industrialization. The objective of this study was to detect dissolved corrosive metal in water. Tap water samples were collected from four different locations. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentration of dissolved metal. The metal analysis was done to detect cadmium, chromium, lead, and arsenic. The results obtained were compared with guidelines for drinking water quality such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines...{read more to download full material}

017]. HELMINTHIC PARASITES OF DOMESTIC FOWLS IN LOKOJA KOGI STATE: A survey of intestinal parasites of domestic fowl was carried out in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria during 2009. One hundred and eighty (180) gastrointestinal samples were examined microscopically using the direct smear and floatation technique. The result showed a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. Nematodes especially Ascaridia galli 47 (41.6%).and Capillaria caudinflata were most prevalent in the birds. Raillietina tetragona 11 (6.1%) was found to be the highest in occurrence among the cestodes encountered. No trematode was encountered among the birds, while Eimeria tenella 7 (3.9%) was the most prevalent protozoa. The average parasite burden per fowl was found to be 9.8 and majority of the species were restricted to small intestine. Twenty three (12.7%) cases of mixed infections were encountered. The study reveals that there was a high prevalence of intestinal parasites of domestic fowl in the study area. This calls for improved management and disease control to enhance their potential. Keywords: Intestinal parasites, domestic fowl, parasite burden, predilection, mixed infection...{read more to download full material}

018]. FLUORESCENCE EFFECT AND ABSORPTION RATE OF X-RAY RADIATION ON ALUMINIUM AND COPPER: An element-specific imaging technique utilizes the element-specific fluorescence X-rays that are induced by primary ionizing radiation. The fluorescence X-rays from an element of interest are then preferentially imaged onto a detector using an optical train. The preferential imaging of the optical train is achieved using a chromatic lens in a suitably configured imaging system. A zone plate is an example of such a chromatic lens; its focal length is inversely proportional to the X-ray wavelength. Enhancement of preferential imaging of a given element in the test sample can be obtained if the zone plate lens itself is made of a compound containing substantially the same element. For example, when imaging copper using the Cu La spectral line, a copper zone plate lens is used. This enhances the preferential imaging of the zone plate lens because its diffraction efficiency (percent of incident energy diffracted into the focus) changes rapidly near an absorption line and can be made to peak at the X-ray fluorescence line of the element from which it is fabricated. In another embodiment, a spectral filter, such as a multilayer optic or crystal, is used in the optical train to achieve preferential imaging in a fluorescence microscope employing either a chromatic or an achromatic lens...{read more to download full material}


019]. FLUORESCENCE EFFECT AND ABSORPTION RATE OF X-RAY RADIATION ON ALUMINIUM AND ZINC: The invention refers to a device for measurement of the thickness of a first layer, comprising one or more sublayers, on a second layer of a metal sheet by X-ray fluorescence analysis comprising means for generating and directing a beam of polychromatic primary X-rays, said beam being able to penetrate into the first and second layers for converting primary X-rays into chemical element specific fluorescent X-rays by means of absorption of primary X-rays and re-emission of fluorescent X-rays by the chemical element, and further comprising means for detecting element specific fluorescent X-rays and determining an intensity thereof. The means for detection have been placed at an angle with respect to the primary beam of X-rays in dependence of the chemical element from which the fluorescent X-rays are to be detected. Herewith an improvement of the efficiency of detection is achieved, and the measurement time is reduced accordingly. Hence, a device is provided with which alloys with a low concentration of fluorescent elements can now be analysed, for determining the thickness of a cladding...{read more to download full material}

020]. FLUORESCENCE EFFECT AND ABSORPTION RATE OF X-RAY RADIATION ON COPPER AND ZINC: An x-ray fluorescence analysis technique is described which allows for the direct determination of the weight fraction of zinc in biological specimens from the male reproductive tract of several mammalian species. It can also be used for absolute determinations of zinc content in small biological specimens with a limit of detestability of about 4 × 10−9 gm in a 5-min integration period. The same instrumentation, with modifications, can be applied to the determination of a number of elements above atomic number 11 found in biological materials...{read more to download full material}

021]. THE EFFECT OF NICKEL IMPURITY ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY DEPOSITED CADMIUM OXIDE THIN FILM: During the several decades, CdO thin film has attracted many attentions as a candidate for the transparent conducting electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance. A series of CdO thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolytic technique at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction scans confirmed the polycrystalline structure of the films. The films exhibit preferential orientation along the plane. To describe the preferential orientation, the texture coefficient has been calculated and the standard deviation factor has also been evaluated to explain the growth mechanism. Various structural parameters such as lattice parameter, crystallite size, strain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability have been calculated. From the optical measurements, the void concentration has been determined and the results are discussed...{read more to download full material}

022]. PRODUCTION OF BLACK AND BROWN POLISH : Shoe polish (or boot polish), usually a waxy paste or a cream, is a consumer product used to shine, waterproof, and restore the appearance of leather shoes or boots, thereby extending the footwear's life.
Various substances have been used as shoe polish for hundreds of years, starting with natural substances such as wax and tallow. Modern polish formulate were introduced early in the 20th century and some products from that era are still in use today. Today, shoe polish is usually made from a mix of natural and synthetic materials, including naphtha, turpentine, dyes, and gum arabic, using straightforward chemical engineering processes. Shoe polish can be toxic, and, if misused, can stain skin...{read more to download full material}

023]. IMPACT OF STEEL PRODUCTION ON SUSTAINABLE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A vibrant iron and steel sector is necessary for the infrastructural and technological development of any nation. Nigeria is blessed with all the raw materials required for steel development including iron ore, coal, natural gas and limestone. At the third national development plan (1975 – 1980) specifically between 1976 and 1978, Nigeria commenced the construction of two integrated iron and steel plants located at Ajaokuta (ASC) and Aladja (DSC) and three rolling mills at Oshogbo, Jos and Kastina. The 1.3 mtpa ASC is based on blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace (BF/BOF) technology with rolling product capacity of 5.2 mtpa. DSC has a 1.0 mtpa steel melting plant for the production of 0.96 mtpa of billets and 0.32 mtpa of rolled products, while supplying 210,000 tonnes of billets each to Oshogbo, Jos and Kastina rolling mills. These projects were expected to kick start a vibrant iron and steel sector in Nigeria. However, due toseveral factors including political, technical, logistical and managerial challenges, all these publicly-owned iron and steel companies folded up in Nigeria. The privately-owned iron and steel companies, which are mostly rolling mills that dependent on the integrated mills for billets are now threatened due to lack of raw materials. The publicly-owned iron and steel companies (ASC, DSC and the three inland rolling mills) were privatized in 2000- 2005, but most of them are still moribund, except DSC that functions below her capacity. Except all these challenges are tackled, iron and steel development in Nigeria will be a mirage...{read more to download full material}

024]. ABSORBANCE SPECTRA OF TIN-SELENIDE (SnSe) THIN FILM SYNTHESIZED USING ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD: Tin selenide (SnSe) thin films were electrochemically deposited onto Au(1 1 1) substrates from an aqueous solution containing SnCl2, Na2SeO3, and EDTA at room temperature (25 °C). The electrochemical behaviors and the codeposition potentials of Sn and Se were explored by cyclic voltammetry. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy were employed to characterize the thin films. When the electrodeposition potential increased, the Se content in the films decreased. It was found that the stoichiometric SnSe thin films could be obtained at −0.50 V. The as-deposited films were crystallized in the preferential orientation along the (1 1 1) plane. The morphologies of SnSe films could be changed from spherical grains to platelet-like particles as the deposition potential increases. The SEM investigations show that the film growth proceeds via nucleation, growth of film layer and formation of needle-like particles on the overlayer of the film. The optical absorption study showed the film has direct transition with band gap energy of 1.3 eV...{read more to download full material}

025]. PRODUCTION OF SILICON CARBIDE FROM RICE HUSK: This paper reports the formation of ß-silicon carbide by the process of pyrolyzing rice husks (RH). The sequence of transformations and the mechanism of formation of crystalline silica, carbon, and silicon carbide from RH were investigated in detail. The structural evolution of silicon carbide particulates during the conversion process was critically examined by various techniques. Studies using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic techniques revealed that a temperature of 1500°C is desirable for the completion of the reaction between RH silica and carbon, thereby leading to the formation of ß-silicon carbide. Except for the gradual change in the morphology leading to the formation of dense crystals of ß-SiCp, formation of alpha-SiCp was not evidenced in the present studies. The fine particle size of ß-SiC, formed at lower reaction temperatures, apparently precluded the transformation to alpha-SiC...{read more to download full material}

026]. THE EFFECT OF NICKEL IMPURITY ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY DEPOSITED CADMIUM OXIDE THIN FILM: During the several decades, CdO thin film has attracted many attentions as a candidate for the transparent conducting electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance. A series of CdO thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolytic technique at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction scans confirmed the polycrystalline structure of the films. The films exhibit preferential orientation along the plane. To describe the preferential orientation, the texture coefficient has been calculated and the standard deviation factor has also been evaluated to explain the growth mechanism. Various structural parameters such as lattice parameter, crystallite size, strain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability have been calculated. From the optical measurements, the void concentration has been determined and the results are discussed...{read more to download full material}

027]. GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC SULPHIDE THIN FILM BY SOLUTION GROWTH TECHNIQUE: Zinc sulfide thin films were grown by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method on soda lime glass and on indium tin oxide covered glass, using diluted solutions of ZnCl2 complexed with triethanolamine (TEA) or ethylenediamine as the cation precursor and a diluted solution of Na2S as the anion precursor. The growth rate of the ZnS film varied between 0.13 and 0.27 nm/cycle. The refractive indices were from 1.95 to 2.23, and the packing densities were from 72 to 90%...{read more to download full material}

028]. FABRICATION OF DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL USING PIGMENTS FROM NATURAL DYE (CHROLOMENA ODORATA): Looking for the green sources of energy have been the subject for research activities for last decade. For years studies have been using various kinds of energy sources to fulfill energy requirement. In order to reduce further accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs), green generator or converter of energy has been designed to replace the conventional (fossil) energy sources. A new technology had been developed that is known as Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSC) which consists of a group of photovoltaic cells that produces green energy at low cost of sensitization material production since no vacuum systems or low cost equipment are used in fabrication process...{read more to download full material}

029]. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A BASIN-TYPE SOLAR DISTILLERY: Adequate quality and reliability of drinking water supply is a fundamental need. Without potable water or drinking water (less than about 500 ppm of salt) human life is not possible. Only 1% of Earth's water is in a fresh, liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both diseases and toxic chemicals. For this reason, purification of water supplies is extremely important....{read more to download full material}

030]. NATURALLY OCCURING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL: ITS IMPACT IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) consist of materials, usually industrial wastes or by-products enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment, such as uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon. Natural radioactive elements are present in very low concentrations in earth's crust, and are brought to the surface through human activities such as oil and gas exploration or mining, and through natural processes like leakage of radon gas to the atmosphere or through dissolution in ground water. Another example of NORM is coal ash produced from coal burning in power plants. If radioactivity is much higher than background level, handling NORM may cause problems in many industries and transportation...{read more to download full material}

031]. DEPOSITION OF NICKEL SELENIDE (NiSe) BY CHEMICAL BATH METHOD: Nickel selenide thin films have been deposited using chemical bath method on non-conducting glass substrates in a tartarate bath containing nickel sulphate octahydrate, hydrazine hydrate, sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous alkaline medium. The grown films were uniform, well adherent and black in color. The nickel selenide thin film revealed polycrystalline nature with hexagonal system. The direct optical band gap of the film was found to be 1.61 eV. Electrical resistivity of film was observed in the order of 103 (Ω cm) with p-type conduction mechanism...{read more to download full material}

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