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STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF PRACTICALAGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ILORIN WEST L.G.A. KWARA STATE

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TITLE PAGE

STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF PRACTICALAGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ILORIN WEST L.G.A. KWARA STATE

BY

---
EE/H2013/01430
DEPARTMENT OF ----
SCHOOL OF ---
INSTITUTE OF ---

DECEMBER,2018



APPROVAL PAGE

This is to certify that the research work, "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" by ---, Reg. No. EE/H2007/01430 submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement award of a Higher National Diploma on --- has been approved.

By
---                                                     . ---
Supervisor                                                  Head of Department.
Signature……………….                           Signature……………….        

……………………………….
---
External Invigilator



DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to Almighty God for his protection, kindness, strength over my life throughout the period and also to my --- for his financial support and moral care towards me.Also to my mentor --- for her academic advice she often gives to me. May Almighty God shield them from the peril of this world and bless their entire endeavour Amen.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of this project work could not have been a reality without the encouragement of my --- and other people. My immensely appreciation goes to my humble and able supervisor mr. --- for his kindness in supervising this project.
My warmest gratitude goes to my parents for their moral, spiritual and financial support throughout my study in this institution.
My appreciation goes to some of my lecturers among whom are Mr. ---, and Dr. ---. I also recognize the support of some of the staff of --- among whom are: The General Manager, Deputy General manager, the internal Auditor Mr. --- and the ---. Finally, my appreciation goes to my elder sister ---, my lovely friends mercy ---, ---, --- and many others who were quite helpful.


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ABSTRACT

The study investigate students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State
The population for this study is made up of all Agricultural science students. The instrument used for this study was research design questionnaire and responses were elicited for the research, random sampling method was used to sample students offering agricultural science from each of the four schools involved in the study. Four research question and hypotheses were used to guide in the study. Simple percentage was used in answering the research question and chi-square analysiswas used to test the null hypotheses at a significant difference of 0.05.
The result of the study reveal that student  have a positive perception,  positive attitude and interest toward practical agriculturalscience, furthermore it also showed that there is no significant difference between male and female student in their  interest, attitude and perception of agricultural science practical. Finally it was revealed that students perception of practical agricultural science influence their choice of agricultural science as a career
 The study recommended among others that agricultural science teachers should continue to sustain students interest in practical agricultural science through motivations and various pedagogical methods, and female students should be given equal opportunity in agricultural sector like their male counter parts since there is no difference in the way students viewed Agricultural science. The study further recommend that   student interest in agricultural science practical should be sustained through the provision of agricultural science facilities and learning resources.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                                                                i
Certification                                                                                                                            ii
Dedication                                                                                                                              iii
Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv
Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi
Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the problem                                                                                                    1
Statements of Problem                                                                                                            4
Purpose of the Study                                                                                                              5
Research Questions                                                                                                                 5
Research Hypotheses                                                                                                              6
Scope of the Study                                                                                                                 6
Clarification of Major Terms and Variables                                                                           6
Significance of the Study                                                                                                       7

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Agricultural Education                                                                                        9
Objectives and Contents of Agricultural Science   Curriculum                                              15
Empirical studies on student attitude towards practical agricultural science                         22Hindrances to Teaching and Learning of  Practical Agricultural Science in
Secondary Schools                                                                                                                  26
Strategies for improving Teaching and Learning of Practical Agricultural science                31
Appraisal of Reviewed Literature                                                                                          34

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                                                                     37
Population of the Study                                                                                                          37
Sampling and Sampling Techniques                                                                                       37
Research Instrument                                                                                                               38
Validation of Instruments                                                                                                       38
Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                                38
Data Analysis Techniques                                                                                                       39

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT
Data Analysis and Result                                                                                                       40
Summary of Major Findings                                                                                                   50

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion                                                                                                                               51
Conclusion                                                                                                                              53
Recommendations                                                                                                                  54
References                                                                                                                              56
Appendix                                                                                                                                63

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the problem
Globally, education today is widely known as the most effective investment a country can make ,according to World Bank (2007)  Education  is one of the critical pathway to promote social and economic development.It can bring about a better life, better world and raises economic development, it can improve the wellbeing of family and ensure better prospect of education for children (Galchukia 1999).
Secondary schools are the intermediary institutions between primary schools and tertiary institutions.  In the present 9-3-4 system of education in Nigeria, the last three years of nine year basic education is for upper basic  (Junior Secondary) while the three years is for Senior  secondary (FRN,2013). Its curriculum contains subjects that are capable of preparing its students to live a useful life within the society and also prepare them for higher education,  one of the subjects that can help in attaining these  objectives is Agricultural science.
The need for agricultural science education in the Nigeria secondary schools system cannot be over emphasized due to the enormous impact of the agricultural sector on the nation’s economy. Agriculture plays a critical role in job creation & poverty alleviation by successive government in Nigeria through different programmes.The Nigerian agriculture had suffered neglect for decades due to the discovery of oil. However, the sector still contributes significantly to the nation’s gross domestic product. As highlighted by Adegboye (2004), agriculture contributes more than 30 percent of the country’s annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employs about 70 percent of the labour force, accounts for over 90 percent of the nation’s non-oil exports and provides over 80 percent of the country’s food resources. Most African economies are dominated by agriculture, which contributes about 17% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 40% of exports, employment creation and has the potential to reduce poverty. The agricultural sector has been described as the engine for economic growth and improved livelihoods in Africa (World Bank 2006; Diao et al., 2007).
Practical aspect of Agricultural science is so vital to national growth and productivity. According to the National Policy on Education(2004), Agriculture is one of the subjects offered in  Junior and Senior Secondary Schools, as a pre-vocational elective and vocational elective respectively (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013).
The teaching and learning of agricultural science in Nigeria secondary schools is far from satisfactory  due to student perception and approach used in teaching the subject as pointed out by Sekamu (2009) , that agriculture is taught theoretically an as  failed  to make an impression on the society
Perception is derived from the Latin words perceptio or percipio meaning the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment (Wikipedia, 2014).. Perception refers to individuals view of level of understanding of subject matter or things, an individual perception of things will determine the type of attitude that will be put on..According to Mukherjee (1998), the term attitude refers to one’s feelings, thought and predisposition to behave in some popular manner towards some aspect of one’s environment.  Attitude is the liking or disliking of an object based on what is known about it (Rameela, 2004). Attitude have a strong influences on people perception of the things around them and help to determine their likes and dislikes. Falaye and Ayoola (2006) pointed out that student attitude toward practical agricultural science is largely determined by their erroneous perception and misconception of the profession as the major livelihood option for the resource poor  farmers who have no other meaningful sustenance to earn a living. This myopic view has rather dampened the student moral and attitude without realizing that scientific and technological innovation that can   transform farming into a lucrative system business.
Gender refers to the social meanings associated with being a male or a female, including the construction of identities, expectations, behaviors and power relationships that derive from social interactions (Ambe-Uva, Iwuchukwu & Jibrin 2008)). Orji (2002) asserted that in Africa, especially in a traditional Nigerian setting female and male sex roles are seen as mutually exclusive. For instance, some professions like carpentry, engineering, woodwork, metalwork and automobile engineering technologies are still regarded in some quarters as no-go-area for women while nursing and catering profession are seen as exclusive areas for women.
Gender difference in students also dictates their perception and attitude toward learning of science subject including agriculture science and other  vocational subject. Female students tend to show a dislike for science subject like agricultural science that usually involve strenuous practical that require physical exertion which is usually associated with fatigue and sometime physical injuries (Adesoji,1999 and Ezewu,1981), Attitude of past Administration in Nigeria towards Agriculture is very bad Although the present administration of president Muhammadu Buhari administration is putting up a positive effort towards agriculture in order to curb the problems of unemployment, food shortage and to use the sector to diversify the economy of the country and also make many Nigerians to be self-reliant (Federal Government of Nigeria  ,FGN 2016) which is one of the aim of vocational agriculture.

1.3 Statements of Problem
The role of Agriculture to a nation cannot be underestimate ranging from availability of crops and animals in market to food security among other.Agricultural science is a practical oriented subject,the approach to teaching of agricultural science in most secondary school is taught theoretically and has failed to make an impression on the society (Sekamu,2009). FRN(2009)pointed out that Nigeria schools should teach practical skills, knowledge and value which will help school leavers to solve real life problems. Learners learn better when they hear, see and touch which is the principle of learning by doing, this principle is best achieved by engaging oneself in practical activities (Osinem,2008).. However with modernization in Agriculture ,there is a need to look into the perception and interest of secondary school students in practical agricultural science in order correct  their wrong perception to the aspect of agricultural science  if they have  negative perception of  the aspect  ,since student perception of things will determine their involvement in what thedo and how well they perform in such things .This study however, tries to investigate the perception of senior secondary school student towards practical agricultural science.

1.4 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of secondary school student towards practical agriculture in senior secondary school in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State
The specific purpose of the study were to;

  1. Identify how students perceive practical agricultural science.
  2. Find out whether gender differences have any significant effect on the attitude of secondary school students toward   practical agricultural         
  3. To determine whether students, perception of practical agricultural science influenced  their choice of agricultural science  as a career.                    
  4. To verify student  interest in practical agricultural science.

1.5 Research Questions
Based on the purpose on the study. The following research questions were formulated
This study was intended to find answer to the following questions.

  1.  What are the students perception of  practical agricultural science
  2. Does gender difference has any significant effect on student attitude toward practical agricultural science
  3. Dose gender perception of practical agricultural science influence their choice of agricultural science as a career
  4. What are the students interest in practical agricultural science

1.6       Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses(H0) were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance
H01      There is no significant difference between the perception of male and         female students toward practical agriculture.
H02        There is no significant differences between student gender on their attitude   toward practical agricultural science
H03        There is no significant differences between student perception of practical agricultural science and their choice of agricultural science as a career.
H04        There is no significant differences between the interest of male and female students towards practical agricultural science

1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to all secondary schools offering Agricultural science in Ilorin west LGA .All senior secondary schools student offering agricultural science comprise the entire scope of the study
Clarification of Terms and Major Variables
The following terms and variables are clarified operationally as used in this study
Perception: Is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information .or conscious understanding of something.
Attitude: is the disposition or state of mind about something.
Co-education: this refers to school for both male and female.
Interest: a great attention and concern given to something
Gender: is a social cultural phenomenon of division of people into male and female
School Curriculum: this is an education programs prepared for formal education programs in the school .It comprises all the subject and extra-curriculum activities of the school.
Vocational Education: Is the education that prepare people to work in a trade, a craft ,as a technicians or  in professional vocation

1.8 Significance of the Study
The outcome of the study would beofutmost important to curriculum planners, school administrators, agricultural science teachers, government, parents and students.
To curriculum planner and developers, it would enable them to possess necessary knowledge and disposition to develop scientific curricular that would encourage practical. Agricultural science.
To the school administrators it would provide information  which would make them realize the importance  of  practical  agriculture and would enable them to handle the aspect with care and  provide necessary things in term of human and material resource that would  make it teaching and learning  effective,
To the teachers it would make them to be aware of perception of students towards practical agricultural science which will enable them to use different strategies to motivate student interest in agricultural science.
To the students it will make them to be aware that their perception and interest on  of things will greatly determine how well they will perform and engage in such activities
To the parents, it will help in educating those with wrong perception and misconception that subject like agricultural science is meant for male alone,thereby allowing their female children to engage in practical agricultural science

To thegovernment, it will help them to know the level of interest of students in practical agricultural science which will make them to pump more resources in term of human and materials resources into the aspect in order to use the sector to diversify the

1.9                                                    PLAN OF THE STUDY
This study is basically divided into five (5) chapters.
CHAPTER ONE: Takes on the introduction of the subject matter. If consists of the super significance and definition of terms of the study.
CHAPTER TWO: This is the literature review this entails the works that had been done on this particular topic which was done by other researchers.
CHAPTER THREE: Will talk about the Methodist that the researcher adopted in getting necessary materials or information that will facilitate the success of the research work.
CHAPTER FOUR: Explain how the researcher was able to analysis and present the data he got for his work while the chapter:
CHAPTER FIVE: Brings everything to conclusion the researcher does his summary and give necessary recommendation where needed.


CHAPTER TWO: The chapter one of this work has been displayed above. The complete chapter two of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" is also available. Order full work to download. Chapter two of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" consists of the literature review. In this chapter all the related work on "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" was reviewed.

CHAPTER THREE: The complete chapter three of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter three of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" consists of the methodology. In this chapter all the method used in carrying out this work was discussed.

CHAPTER FOUR: The complete chapter four of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter four of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" consists of all the test conducted during the work and the result gotten after the whole work

CHAPTER FIVE: The complete chapter five of design and construction of a "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter five of "students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary schools in ilorin west l.g.a. kwara state" consist of conclusion, recommendation and references.

 

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