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Automatic doors operate with the help of sensors. Sensors do exactly what they sound like they’d do: they sense things. An automatic door opens and closes door when the sensor senses someone or something. For example, some automatic doors operate when they’re triggered by sensors that sense weight. These weight sensors might be disguised in a rubber mat in front of the door. When you step on the mat, the sensors send a signal to the automatic doors that tells them to open. One major problem of automatic door is false triggering problem, that is when something that need not to open door for passes through the sensor it will cause the door to open or  when people walking across the face of the door without intending to walk through it, which can be very annoying and a big waste of heat/cold. The aim of applying artificial intelligence to automatic doors is to tackle this problem thereby making an automatic door to be opening only when it detects human being.


1.0                                          INTRODUCTION
1.1                                BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Intelligence is best defined as the ability of an individual to adapt his/her behavior to new circumstances. Human intelligence is not a single ability but is rather a composition of abilities like learning, reasoning, problem solving, perception, and understanding of language. Since ancient times, people have been thinking of designing machines that will replicate human intelligence. The concept of thinking machines appears in Greek myths like the 'Talos of Crete'. John McCarthy coined the term, 'artificial intelligence' in 1956. He defines artificial intelligence as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. AI researchers hope to develop intelligent machines, which can perceive, learn and reason like humans. General intelligence is their long-term goal. By general intelligence they mean to incorporate other aspects like social intelligence, judgment, common sense, robotics, and self-awareness into machines. Researchers dream of bringing into machines, factors such as wisdom and the ability to feel, which only humans possess.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines".
AI research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.
The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are a large number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The AI field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology.
The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—"can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of tremendous optimism but has also suffered stunning setbacks. Today it has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most challenging problems in engineering.

1.1                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines. It is about designing machines that can think as human or designing a machine that are capable of intelligent behavior. The objective of this work is to highlight how artificial intelligence is used in automatic doors.

1.2                          SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Automatic doors operate with the help of sensors. Sensors do exactly what they sound like they’d do: they sense things. There are many different types of sensors that can sense different types of things, such as sound, light, weight, and motion.
For example, some automatic doors operate when they’re triggered by sensors that sense weight. These weight sensors might be disguised in a rubber mat in front of the door. When you step on the mat, the sensors send a signal to the automatic doors that tells them to open.
Other automatic doors operate on optic or motion sensors. These sensors might be mounted above a set of automatic doors or built on the top or the sides of the frame of the automatic doors.
When these optic or motion sensors sense motion nearby, they trigger the automatic doors to open and then close. This is why, when you approach a set of automatic doors, they will open as soon as you get close enough to activate the sensors.
Automatic doors have many useful purposes, which is why you can find them in many different types of locations. From supermarkets to airports and many types of large buildings, automatic doors make it easier for people to get into and out of buildings. They are especially helpful for people who are handicapped.
Artificial intelligent in automatic door senses human and then opens, they never open by accident when someone is just walking by. There are two major improvements taking place here. First, the door is opened only for people who intend to use it. And second, the speed, width, and timing of the door opening is determined based on observations of the positions, speed, and number of people who are walking. The door estimates when you'll arrive at it, and times its opening such that it will have just finished opening itself as you get there. If you're in a hurry, the door cranks up its opening speed to make sure it gets out of your way in time. It also opens wider to admit more people at once when it has to. The door won't be able to tell whether to keep itself closed if you pause directly before it for dramatic effect, but otherwise.

1.3                               PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
Artificial intelligent in Automatic gates are used to control access into a secured area. Most commonly, automatic gates are used at the entrance to the facility, and are used to control vehicular access on and off of the site. For example, a manufacturing plant may use an automatic gate at its main entrance. All vehicles entering and exiting the plant must do so through the automatic gate. Automatic gates are also used at interior areas within a facility. For example, automatic gates are commonly used within the inside of a parking garage to separate employee parking areas from public areas of the garage.

pretty much anything can trigger the infrared sensor, it’s usually pointed down at a fairly sharp angle so that only people standing near the door will open it — which is what causes the sometimes-agonizing delay of waiting for the door to open wide enough for you to enter. Another big problem is people walking across the face of the door without intending to walk through it, which can be very annoying and a big waste of heat/cold.

Automatic gates consist of two basic components:
Gate: The gate is the physical object that is moved to block the gate opening. Most gates used in commercial applications are made of either ornamental iron or chain-link material and are usually designed to match the fencing adjacent to where the gate is installed.
Gate Operator: The gate operator is the machinery that moves the gate in and out of the gate opening. Gate operators are electrically-powered and may be chain-driven, gear-driven, or hydraulic depending on the type of operator.

1.6                            TYPES OF AUTOMATIC GATES
There are six types of commonly used automatic gates. These include the slide gate, cantilever gate, swing gate, vertical lift gate, vertical pivot lift gate, bi-folding gate, and barrier arm gate. The following is a brief description of each type of gate:
Slide Gate
The slide gate is probably the most commonly used type of automatic gate in light-duty commercial applications.
The slide gate is mounted parallel to the inside of the fence and slides horizontally back and forth across the gate opening. The slide gate uses rollers on the bottom of the gate to support it. These rollers typically ride along a metal track that has been installed along the ground across the gate opening. Slide gates are sometime also called "rolling gates" or "V-track gates".
Because this type of gate uses rollers that must run along the ground, there can be problems with the rollers getting blocked by snow, ice, or debris. The rollers can also be a source of friction, making the gate operator have to work harder to open and close the gate. Due to these issues, some gate operator manufacturers discourage the use of slide gates.
Cantilever Gate
The cantilever gate is similar to the slide gate, but does not use rollers that slide along the ground to support it. Instead, the cantilever gate is supported from rails that run along the inside of the fence structure. This gate gets its name from the fact that the gate "cantilevers" (hangs over) the gate opening. Cantilever gates need to be much wider than slide gates in order to provide a section along the fence structure where the gate is supported. This section is called a "counterbalance" and is usually at least 1/2 the width of the gate opening itself
Cantilever gates are suspended across the gate opening from the counterbalance, with no rollers running along the ground to provide friction or to become obstructed. Because of this, cantilever gates are considered to be much more reliable than slide gates, and are commonly used for heavy-duty and industrial gate applications.
One downside to using cantilever gates is the additional width required to accommodate the counterbalance. This can be a problem at sites that have limited space available beside the gate.

Swing Gate
Swing gates are hinged on one side and swing open and closed like a door. Swing gates typically travel a 90 degree arc between their open and closed positions. Swing gates can consist of a single leaf or double leafs and can be in-swinging or out-swinging.
Swing gates are most commonly used in residential applications because of their low cost and ease of installation. Because swing gates travel over a large arc, space must be available to allow vehicles approaching the gate to remain clear while the gate opens or closes. The swinging arc of the gate also requires additional safety considerations to prevent people or vehicles from being hit or trapped by the moving gate.
Vertical Lift Gate
Vertical lift gates move up and down vertically over the gate opening. The gate must be lifted high enough to allow vehicles to pass underneath of it. This type of gate requires that tall vertical support towers be installed on each side of the gate opening.
Vertical lift gates are ideal when there is limited space available next to the gate opening. Vertical lift gates are also very fast and very reliable. The appearance of the vertical support towers gives these gates a very "industrial" appearance, which may make them unsuitable for use in locations where appearance is important.

Vertical Pivot Lift Gate
Vertical pivot lift gates rotate in and out of the gate opening. Vertical pivot lift gates are supported entirely from the gate operator itself and do not require any additional support structures.
Vertical pivot lift gates provide some of the benefits of vertical lift gates, but appear less obtrusive as they do not require vertical support towers. However, the footprint of a vertical pivot lift gate operator is larger and requires additional space beside the gate. Vertical pivot lift operators typically use springs to serve as a counterweight, and in our opinion, this makes them less reliable than a standard vertical lift gate.

Bi-Folding Gate
Bi-folding gates consist of two gate panels that are hinged together. When activated, these gate panels fold back onto themselves to allow access. Most commonly, bi-folding gates are used in pairs, with one pair being used on each side of the gate opening. Some models require a track along either the top or bottom of the gate.
Bi-folding gates require only a small footprint and are often a good choice when space is limited. Many bi-folding gates have relatively fast opening and closing speeds. Because of the many potential entrapment points possible with this type of gate, additional safety considerations are often required.
Barrier Arm Gate
Barrier arm gates consist of a vertical barrier arm that is rotated in and out of the gate opening. Barrier arm gates are used to control vehicles, not pedestrians. As it is very easy for a person to walk beside or climb over or under the gate arm, barrier arm gates provide almost no security.
Barrier arm gates are used primarily to control access in and out of parking facilities, or to control vehicular traffic at manned security entrances.

1.7                                  FUTURE IMPROVEMENT
In future, it is expected that the sensor would be coupled with some computer vision algorithms, can detect and track people near the door. If it senses that you’re walking towards the door, it times the opening perfectly for your arrival at the aperture — if it senses that you’re running towards the door, it opens much faster. If there’s a large group of people walking towards the door, it opens all the way — and if you’re merely walking by the door, it stays closed.




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