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The steam boiler is to control specification problem, to illustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the specification and the verification of complex system can be exploited for a reliable and well documented development of executable but formally inspectableand systematically modifiable code. A hierarch of stepwise defined abstract machine model in developed, the ground version of which can be checked for whether it faithfully reflects the informally given problem.The sequence of machine model the yield various abstract views of the system, making the various design decisions transparent, and leads to CH programs.The Abstract machine are evolving algebras and thereby have a rigorous semantically foundation allowing us to formalize and prove, under precisely stated assumption, some typical sample properties of the system.This provides insight into the structure of the system which supports easily maintenance extensions and modifications of both the abstract specification and the implementation.

Title                                                                                                   i
Certification                                                                              ii
Dedication   iii
Acknowledgement                                                                              iv
Abstract                                                                                             v
Table Content                                                                                    vi

  1. Introduction                                                                             1

1.1     Background of steam boiler                                                      4
1.2     Aim                                                                                          5
1.3     Objective of the study                                                               6
1.4     Scope of the Study                                                                   7
1.5     Justification of the study                                                           7
1.6     Statement of the study                                                             10
2.0     Literature Review                                                                     12
3.0     Materials and Method                                                                15
3.1     Description of the fuel used                                                      17
3.2     Procedure of the steam boiler machine                                      18     
3.3     Parts of the machine                                                                 20
3.4     Strength of the material used                                                    21     
3.5     Maintenance of steam boiler                                                     22
3.6     Mechanical properties of steam boiler                              22
3.7     Uses of steam boiler                                                                  24
3.8     Function of steam boiler                                                            25
3.9     Merits and demerits of steam boiler                                           26
4.0     Experimental Analysis                                                               28
4.1     Result                                                                                      29
5.0     Conclusion                                                                                30
6.0     Recommendation                                                                      33
6.1     Reference                                                                                 36

A steam boiler is an enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circular, either as hot water steam, to produce a source to either heat or power. A central heating plant may have one or more boiler that use gas oil, or coal as fuel. The steam generated is used to heat building, provide hot water, and provide steam for cleaning, sterilizing, cooking and laundering operation. Small package boiler also provides steam and hot water for small building.
A careful study of his course can help you acquire useful knowledge of steam generation, types of boilers pertinent to boiler operations, various fitting commonly found on boilers, and so on. The primary objective of this chapter is to lay the foundation for you to develop skill in the operation, maintenance, and repair of boilers.
The boiler system is made up of:
1.       Feed water system
2.       Steam system
3.       Fuel system
Are feed water system provide water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. The water supplied to boiler that is converted to steam is called feed water the success of feed water are
1.       Condensates or condensed steam returned from the process
2.       Make up water which is the raw water which must come from outside.
Steam boilers have several strength that have made them a common feature of building. They have a long life, can achieve efficiency up to 95% or greater. Provide and effective method of heating a building and in the case of steam system required little or no pumping energy. However fuel costs can be considerable, regular maintenance is required and if maintenance is delay repair can be costly guidance for the construction, operation and maintenance of boilers is provided primary by the ASME <American society of mechanical engineers> which produce the following resources. Rule for construction of heating boiler and pressure vessel cods section IV-2007 Recommended rules for the car and operation of heating boilers, Boiler and pressure vessel code, section VII-2007. Boilers are often one of the largest energy users in a building. For every year a boiler system goes unattended boiler costs can increase approximately 10% boiler operation and maintenance is therefore a good place to start when looking for ways to reduce energy use and save money Barry Allen (2008).

This paper investigates the options for green house gas emission reduction from the installation of new and retrofit high efficiency boilers, The types of boiler addressed are industrial boilers, and residential boilers, each of these boiler types have unique technological boilers, each of these boiler types have unique technological characteristics and regulatory requirement that need to be addressed to determine if an appropriate performance standard can be developed. Some boiler types have additional issue associated with leakage –primary biomas boilers, but are widely distributed in  the general population and GHG emission reduction ownership “ right” are an issue that must also be considered. This paper explores this issue and makes recommendations on if and how to proceed with GHG offset methodologies. Kara Technology Manual (2004).      

   1.2 Aim
-        Review the detrimental effects of the urban heat island phenomenon, particularly as a causative factor in promoting exceedance of air quality ozone standards, and identify mitigation alternative that may reduce the effects of the urban heat island.
-        Illustrate the difference in temperature between the urbanized center of the surrounding areas in order to identify the health island in the area region
-        Evaluate of the relationship between temperature and ozone
-        Develop a method to analyses the urban fabric of the area from aerial photographs, thus allowing the determination of the proportion of vegetative, roofed and paved surface as a function of land use.
-        Evaluates of the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies as applied to the area, with special on vegetation and paying material.


  1. To examine the design of boiler and connected steam pipeline          manufacture in other countries                          
  2. To examine the design of boiler and to approve the pressure parts modification proposal, in order to improve the efficiency and steam generating capacity of boiler
  3. To approve the design, drawing of small industries boiler and to inspect them during manufacturing
  4. To inspect the boiler pressure parts subject for repair and replacement during manufacturing
  5. To verify and approve the design and flexibility analysis of high pressure steam line piping
  6. To conduct periodical testing of welding electrodes.
  7. To conduct welders examination for initial and requalification
  8. To conduct examination in order to issue certification of competency as a first class boiler attendants.

The methodology for the implementing measures of energy using product been define by the commission established in 2004/05 in a well define (MEEUP). Within this methodology a common frame work to gather information  as a basic for the evaluation of product is set, this frame work enable an evaluation the performance of product covering the relevant the performance of product covering the relevant criteria of eligibility for implementing measure under the directive with the extension of the scope of the ecodesign directive on energy related product the methodology to energy related product {MEERP}.it now covers also the specific aspects of energy consumption but influence the energy consumption of other product (e.g. windows heating controls) Arora. N. Kumar (1997)

During the process of dyeing and drying in textile industry, steam plays an significant role the industrial boilers is used combined with rising finishing scenter dyeing machine, drying room and mixing mill. The temperature range is 602 1800 c justification of stand by steam boiler is available for textile industry which achieves high working temperature {3300c} under low working pressure (<10 bar). Except hot oil boiler, oil gas fired steam boiler and biomass water tube steam boiler is also suitable for textile factories. BhattachryaEtal (2009)

The purpose of this project is to identify the effect that surface modification have on the urban heat island phenomenanon and related ozone problem in the metropolitan area of Ilorin.
-        The basic hypothesis sis that urban, summertime temperature can be significantly lower by increasing the vegetative landscape cover enhancing the solar reflectivity of paved and roofed surface within an urban area.
-        It is proposed that in addition to a decreasein temperature the modification of an urban to include more vegetative cover and lighter, lower albede surface will also reduce energy consumption, Ozone exceedance, and detrimental environmental and human health effects associated with high levels of ozone
The analysis is divided into three main parts.
-        The first section of this report introduces the causes of ground level ozone and iteffects in urban areas. It explains both the chemistry and transport associated with ozone exceedance.
-        Second the section is a compilation of the most viable mitigation strategies of urban heat island: the effect, implementation strategies and specific strength and weaknesses associated with each approach are described, including a comparison of asphalt and concrete pavements system using a life cycle analysis approach
-        The final section provides a case study of the Chicago area, This study entailed and examination of the land use development of an urban fabric analysis in which total vegetative, pave, and roofed surface are investigated and quantified, and discussion on the effectiveness of possible mitigation strategies in the workshop area, in general the associated findings of my research are located within this final section. Robert Mucci (2005).

CHAPTER TWO: The chapter one of this work has been displayed above. The complete chapter two of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" is also available. Order full work to download. Chapter two of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" consists of the literature review. In this chapter all the related works on "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" were reviewed.

CHAPTER THREE: The complete chapter three of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter three of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" consists of the methodology. In this chapter all the method used in carrying out this work was discussed.

CHAPTER FOUR: The complete chapter four of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter four of ""operation and maintenance of steam boiler" consists of all the test conducted during the work and the result gotten after the whole work

CHAPTER FIVE: The complete chapter five of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" is available. Order full work to download. Chapter five of "operation and maintenance of steam boiler" consist of conclusion, recommendation and references.



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